Moral Concerns

Via Thomas B Edsall's recent New York Times column "Where Does All That Hate We Feel Come From?", from the (2012) paper "Tracing the threads: How five moral concerns (especially Purity) help explain culture war attitudes" by Spassena P. Koleva, Jesse Graham, Ravi Iyer, Peter H. Ditto, and Jonathan Haidt:

Briefly, the five moral foundations are harm/care, fairness/reciprocity, ingroup/loyalty, authority/respect, and purity/sanctity. The harm/care foundation leads us to disapprove of individuals that cause pain and suffering and to approve of those who prevent or alleviate harm. The fairness/reciprocity foundation makes us sensitive to issues of equality and justice and leads us to frown upon people that violate these principles. The ingroup/loyalty foundation is based on our attachment to groups (e.g. our family, church, or country), leading us to approve of those who contribute to the group's well-being and cohesion. The authority/respect foundation is based on our tendency to create hierarchically structured societies of dominance and subordination. This foundation includes approval of individuals who fulfill the duties associated with their position on the social ladder, for example by showing good leadership, or obedience. Lastly, the purity/sanctity foundation is based on the emotion of disgust in response to biological contaminants (e.g. feces or rotten food), and to various social contaminants like spiritual corruption, or the inability to control one's base impulses (see Rozin, Haidt, & McCauley, 2008, on disgust). In the context of previous research on ideology, fairness/reciprocity relates to a concern for inequality and authority/respect to a preference for stability versus change (Graham, Haidt, & Nosek, 2009).

(cf Roots of Morality (2009-04-03), Brainpickings Tidbits (2012-07-31), Righteous Mind (2020-07-12), Negative Thinking Patterns (2015-08-28), Liberty, Equality, Truth (2021-02-24), Complicate the Story (2022-01-16), ...) - ^z - 2022-05-02